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Workplace health and safety

Enel considers employee health, safety and general wellbeing to be the most valuable asset, one to be protected both at work and at home, and we are committed to developing and promoting a strong culture of safety throughout the world. Quality and safety must go hand in hand. The constant commitment of us all, the integration of safety both in our processes and in our training, the reporting and analysis of near misses, rigor in the selection and management of contractors, constant control over quality, the sharing of experience throughout the Group and benchmarking against the leading international players are all cornerstones to Enel’s culture of safety.

Safety rates

2016 2015 Change 
Injury frequency rate - Enel1.261.27(0.01)-0.8%
Injury severity rate - Enel0.0510.0470.0048.5%
Serious and fatal injuries at Enel    
Serious injuries (1)633-
Fatal injuries-4(4)-
Serious and fatal injuries at contractors    
Serious injuries (1)724(17)-70.8%
Fatal injuries59(4)-44.4%

(1) Injuries with an initial prognosis, as reported on the medical certificate issued, of greater than 30 days, or with a confidential prognosis until the actual prognosis is released, or with an unknown prognosis that, based on an initial assessment by the company/Division concerned, is expected to exceed 30 days. Once the official prognosis is released, the related injury is considered serious only if said prognosis exceeds 30 days. Should a confidential prognosis never be released or an unknown prognosis remain unknown, within 30 days of the event, the injury is to be deemed serious.

Workplace accident statistics

In 2016, the lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) and lost day rate (LDR) for Enel Group employees were 0.25 and 10.10, respectively, an increase on 2015. These rates for contractors came to 0.20 (down 34% from 2015) and 8.28 (down 24% from 2015), respectively.

In 2016, there were no fatal injuries involving employees of the Enel Group, although there were 5 fatal injuries involving Enel Group contractors (4 fewer than in 2015).

Our policies for the classification, communication, analysis and reporting of incidents establish the roles and procedures that ensure the timely reporting of accidents, analysis of their cause and definition and monitoring of improvement plans. The policies also detail the procedures for disclosing and analyzing near misses that could have resulted in serious harm.

In accordance with these policies, all serious and fatal injuries to Enel employees and the employees of Enel contractors and other significant, non-serious events have been investigated by a team of experts.

These investigations have found the causes of the injuries to be due, first and foremost, to unsafe conduct and deficiencies in work planning, management and supervision. Actions for improvement emerging from this analysis are constantly monitored until their completion, and steps have been taken in relation to contractors found to be in breach of contract (e.g. contract termination, suspension of certification, etc.).

Safety in tender processes

Safety is tightly integrated into Enel’s tender process, and we closely monitor our contractors’ performance both ex ante by way of our qualification system and ongoing as the contracts progress through numerous control processes.

Our General Contracting Conditions (GCC), which apply to the entire Enel Group, include clauses dedicated to health and safety (H&S). In 2016, we completed the process of revising the system of vendor selection and certification.

The new model, which is used by all of the Group’s lines of business, establishes stricter rules for selecting companies based on their H&S performance. Our vendor rating system is a consolidated process used to monitor activities as a contract progresses. H&S performance is measured using a specific indicator and, since 2015, application of a global model for vendor ratings enables us to also consider the impact of significant injuries to contractor employees.

All companies that work with the Enel Group must share in the various health and safety standards. For this reason, contractors are involved in many initiatives aimed at promoting a culture of safety. To this end, the event “Safety Personalized Plan - Contractors” was organized in Italy in 2016 with a group of contractors working for more than one line of businesses and on the product groups with a significant impact on safety, so as to establish a shared commitment to implementing the established actions for improvement. In 2016, field inspections of work entrusted to contractors continued, for over 250,000 controls conducted throughout the Group.

In 2016, Extra Checking on Sites (ECoS) increased by 56% compared with 2015 for 219 ECoS inspection conducted 161 Report on operations with the goal of assessing the adequacy of the organization and H&S processes and overall commitment to H&S issues.

Safety for the community and other third parties

All Enel facilities are constructed in accordance with local laws and regulations and with the standards of best practice. They are also covered by health and safety management systems based on the international OHSAS 18001 standard. Plant, machinery and equipment are systematically controlled and periodically maintained in order to ensure they function properly in accordance with applicable laws and regulations and with industry best practice.

Infrastructure safety and technological innovation

Through innovation, technology is able to support our H&S efforts, from training and preventive analysis to corrective controls. In 2016, a number of projects of safety innovation continued from 2015 and other new projects were introduced:

  • “Virtual Reality 3D Simulator for Health and Safety Training”, a project that began in 2015 and continued in 2016 to apply virtual reality to H&S training in order to increase employee awareness of safe, responsible conduct by learning from their mistakes;
  • augmented reality: in 2016, devices were introduced for maintenance and operations in order to increase safety in the workplace. A smartphone app provides worker with real-time information about the activity they are currently engaged in;
  • “Man Down Detection”, a project currently involving contractors, the purpose of which is to ensure the safety of workers conducting activities on their own. Using a personal device that monitors worker movement, a warning message is sent to the control room in the event of a fall or a lack of motion for an excessive period of time;
  • “Active Safety at Work (ASW)” is an application that makes it possible to self-verify the use of proper personal protection equipment based on the specific activity to be conducted;
  • use of inspection drones in flues, furnaces and canals in order to prevent risks related to human workers accessing these areas directly;
  • implementation of the smartphone and tablet app APP5RO, which is used to provide photographic documentation of the proper execution of the various steps of electrical work in accordance with Enel’s Five Golden Rules (namely: 1. Completely isolate the system; 2. Protect against reconnection and place warning signs; 3. Ensure there is no current in the system; 4. Ensure proper grounding and short-circuiting; 5. Mark off the working area and ensure the protection of nearby workers).

Development of the Culture of Safety: communication and training

The eighth edition of International Health and Safety Week was held from November 14 to 20, 2016. This event represents a global opportunity for Enel to reflect on issues of health and safety for all our employees. Some 1,400 events were held in 19 countries and involved both contractors and Enel personnel for a total of more than 72,000 people.

There were also several communication campaigns concerning health and safety during the year, focusing on areas of particular importance to the organization. In 2016, we provided nearly 800,000 hours of safety training and awareness activities to Enel employees in order to increase the specific skills and knowledge of workers throughout the Group. 


The Enel Group has created a structured health management system based on preventive measures in order to develop a corporate culture centered on the promotion of the physical, emotional and organizational wellbeing and on establishing worklife balance. To this end, the Group carries out local and global awareness campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles, sponsors screening programs aimed at preventing illness and ensures the provision of medical services.

Global programs and initiatives are developed in accordance with the calendar of the World Health Organization and with local needs.

Alongside the various global activities, country-specific health initiatives have also been launched which include screening and early-diagnosis programs.

The Enel Group implements a systematic, ongoing process of identifying and assessing work-related stress in accordance with our policies for stress-at-work prevention and wellbeing-at work promotion. This enables us to identify, prevent and manage stress in the workplace that could afflict either individuals or broader segments of the organization, while also providing a series of indications aimed at promoting a general culture of wellbeing.

In 2016, we also issued travel policies in order to standardize the process of preventing the risk of contracting local illnesses and the provision of support in the event of illness or injury, including emergency rescue, for employees who travel for work.

Net efficient capacity by primary energy source

Net efficient thermal capacity:    
- coal16.10316.841(0.738)-4.4%
- CCGT15.10016.099(0.999)-6.2%
- fuel oil/gas12.25114.637(2.386)-16.3%
Net efficient nuclear capacity3.3185.132(1.814)-35.3%
Net efficient renewable capacity:    
- hydroelectric27.42529.046(1.621)-5.6%
- wind6.5326.653(0.121)-1.8%
- geothermal0.7610.833(0.072)-8.6%
- biomass and co-generation0.0570.099(0.042)-42.4%
- other1.1320.4020.730-
Total net efficient capacity82.67989.742(7.063)-7.9%

Net efficient capacity by geographical area

20162015 Change 
Iberian Peninsula22.74422.912(0.168)-0.7%
Latin America20.21219.1791.0335.4%
North America1.4952.506-1.011-40.3%
South Africa0.4860.0100.476-
Total net efficient capacity82.67989.742-7.063-7.9%

Net electricity generation by primary energy source

Net thermal electricity generation:
- coal72,34285,677(13,335)-15.6%
- CCGT40,30340,542(239)-0.6%
- fuel oil/gas29,74928,6821,0673.7%
Net nuclear electricity generation33,44439,837(6,393)-16.0%
Net renewable generation:    
- hydroelectric60,03165,939(5,908)-9.0%
- wind18,29416,2042,09012.9%
- geothermal6,1946,205(11)-0.2%
- biomass and co-generation226241(15)-6.2%
- other1,22968554479.4%
Total net electricity generation261,812284,012(22,200)-7.8%

Net electricity generation by geographical area

20162015 Change
Iberian Peninsula72,32377,444(5,121)-6.6%
Latin America65,80567,114(1,309)-2.0%
North America8,6287,3681,26017.1%
South Africa20318185-
Total net electricity generation261,812284,012(22,200)-7.8%

Other generation ratios 

2016 2015 Change
Generation from renewable resources (% of total)32.831.41.44.5%
“Zero-emission” generation (% of total)45.645.50.10.2%
ISO 14001-certified net efficient capacity (% of total)97.997.60.30.3%
Average efficiency of thermal plants (%)(1)
Specific emissions of CO2 from net generation (gCO2/ kWheq ) (2)395409(14)-3.4%
Specific water withdrawal (l/Wheq)0.550.60(0.05)-8.3%

(1) Percentages calculated using a new approach that does not include the Italian oil and gas thermal plants, with the exception of Mercure, as they are of marginal significance or are being disposed of. The contribution of the O&G thermal plants was not included in the Net Heat Value owing to the small number of hours of operation and net output (less than 1% of Italian output with a net installed capacity of about 2.7 GW). The Mercure plant was included, even though classified as an O&G unit, because of the use of biomass as the principal fuel and because it is a base load unit. The heat component for Russian co-generation plants is not included in the calculation. Average efficiency is calculated on the plants and is weighted by production values.

(2) Specific emissions have been calculated by taking account of the total emissions from simple thermal generation, and combined electrical and thermal generation, as a ratio to the total generated by renewable sources, nuclear, simple thermal and combined electrical and thermal generation (including the thermal contribution in MWh equivalent).