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Environmental, social and governance indicators

                            20162015Change
“Zero-emission” generation (% of total)45.645.50.10.2%
Total specific emissions of CO2 from net generation (g CO2/kWheq) (1)395409(14)-3.4%
Average efficiency of thermal plants (%) (2)40.039.70.30.7%
Specific emissions of SO(g/kWh) (1)0.821.07(0.2)-23.4%
Specific emissions of NOx (g/kWh) (1)0.750.78(0.03)-3.8%
Specific emissions of particulates (g/kWh) (1)0.220.26(0.04)-15.4%
ISO 14001-certified net efficient capacity (% of total)97.997.60.30.3%
Enel injury frequency rate (3)1.261.27(0.01)-0.8%
Enel injury severity rate (4)0.0510.0470.0048.5%
Serious and fatal injuries at Enel (no.)67(1)-14.3%
Serious and fatal injuries at contractors (no.)1233(21)-63.6%
Verified violations of the Code of Ethics (no.) (5)1834(16)-47.1%

(1) Specific emissions are calculated as total emissions from simple thermal generation and co-generation of electricity and heat as a ratio of total renewables generation, nuclear generation, simple thermal generation and co-generation of electricity and heat (including the contribution of heat in MWh equivalent).
(2) Percentages calculated using a new approach that does not include the Italian oil and gas (O&G) thermal plants, with the exception of Mercure, as they are of marginal significance or are being disposed of. The contribution of the O&G thermal plants was not included in the Net Heat Value owing to the small number of hours of operation and net output (less than 1% of Italian output with a net installed capacity of about 2.7 GW). The Mercure plant was included, even though classified as an O&G unit, because of the use of biomass as the principal fuel and because it is a base load unit. The heat component for Russian co-generation plants is not included in the calculation. Average efficiency is calculated on the plants and is weighted by production values.
(3) The indicator is calculated as the ratio between the total number of injuries and the number of hours worked, in millions (INAIL standard).
(4) The indicator is calculated as the ratio between the number of days lost for injuries and the number of hours worked, in thousands (INAIL standard).
The analysis of reports received in 2015 was completed in 2016. For that reason, the number of verified violations for 2015 was restated from 32 to 34.
(5) Violations for 2016 regard reports received in 2016 and verified in 2016.

About 46% of Enel’s total generation output came from zero-emission resources in 2016. In line with the decarbonization objective for 2050, new renewables capacity totaling about 2 GW was installed and specific CO2 emissions fell by about 3%.

The reduction was attributable to the decrease in use of coal-fired thermal generation plants.
The average efficiency of thermal plants was virtually unchanged on 2015.
Specific atmospheric emissions declined across the board in 2016: emissions of SO2 declined by about 23%, while NOx emissions declined by about 4% and particulates fell by about 15% compared with 2015. These figures were in line with Group targets for 2020.
The Enel Group has an environmental management system that covers almost 100% of all activities (generation plants, grids, services, properties, sales, etc.). The entire scope of operations is certified except for new plants and newly acquired or constructed installations, which require a certain amount of time for certification.

Injury frequency and severity rates for employees of the Enel Group were equal to 1.26 (1.27 in 2015) and about 0.05 (unchanged on 2015).
In 2016 there were 6 serious injuries involving Enel personnel (no fatal accidents) and 12 serious injuries, of which 5 fatal, involving the employees of contractors working for Enel (a total of 21 fewer events than in 2015).
Reports of violations of the Code of Ethics numbered 85 last year. Following analysis in 2016, 18 were classified as violations.